Cosmogenic surface exposure dating dating for fitness
A muon is about 2/3rds of the size of a proton or a neutron.
They are unstable, lasting only a few hundredths of a microsecond.
The intensity at which cosmic rays collide with the Earth’s atmosphere varies.
It varies with latitude, because the flux is modulated by the Earth’s magnetic field.
This ‘secondary radiation’ essentially has the same energy as the initial interaction.
Through successive interactions, energy is lost until the particles have insufficient energy to cause a spallation reaction upon collision with another particle.
C in our atmosphere, which is used in radiocarbon dating, and in the production of cosmogenic nuclides in rocks at the Earth surface, which we use in cosmogenic nuclide dating[1-3].
So, these rays are essential for many applications in Quaternary Science, but where do they come from?
The first interaction is when the high energy particles collide with nuclei in the upper atmosphere. A spallation reaction is a nuclear reaction where a highly energetic nucleon (usually a secondary cosmic-ray neutron of energy) collides with a target nucleus.
This causes the release of multiple particles (protons, neutrons and clusters).
These particles cause a wave of secondary interactions and spallation reactions.
These secondary fast nucleons continue to produce cosmogenic nuclides in the atmosphere, hydrosphere & lithosphere by breaking apart target atoms through spallation interactions.
Eventually, the particles have insufficient energy to cause spallation. The production of cosmogenic nuclides slows with depth in rock as the cosmic ray intensity flux becomes attenuated with depth.
A hadron is a composite particle made up of quarks held together by a strong force.