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Relative dating for geological purposes

Some creationists provided even more detailed models, and these are also addressed (see especially sections 5 and 7). Second, the whole story can be dismissed as a series of supernatural miracles. However, one must wonder about a God who reportedly does one thing and then arranges every bit of evidence to make it look like something else happened. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 103 (1-2): 67-71. If we grant 400 days for this to settle, and ignore possible compaction since the Flood, we still have 15 meters of sediment settling per day. Extraterrestrial impact events: the record in the rocks and the stratigraphic record. A literal interpretation of the Flood story in Genesis, however, does imply certain physical consequences which can be tested against what we actually observe, and the implications of such an interpretation are investigated below. Creationists argue against the local flood model because it doesn't fit their own literalist preconceptions, but I know of no physical evidence contrary to such a model. The continental tree-ring record - absolute chronology, C-14 calibration and climatic-change at 11 KA. One formation in New Jersey is six kilometers thick. Thus, increasing the quantity of animals by more than about 5% would overload the ark. Here are a few things he didn't take into account: Batten, R. All the original lithosphere became subducted; the rising magma which replaced it raised the ocean floor, causing sea levels to rise and boiling off enough of the ocean to cause 150 days of rain. The imparative of non-stationary natural law in relation to Noah's Flood. Proceedings of the third international conference on creationism, technical symposium sessions, pp. Reports of the National Center for Science Education 17(3): 29-32. I suspect that both will prove insuperable difficulties for a theory of flood deposition of the geologic column and its fossils. However, Woodmorappe makes several questionable and invalid assumptions. When it cooled, the ocean floor lowered again, and the Flood waters receded. [Jackson et al, 1990] How were sedimentary deposits recrystallized and plastically deformed in the short time since the Flood? Therefore all extinct land animals had representatives aboard the ark. Other animals are strict carnivores, and some of those specialize on certain kinds of foods, such as small mammals, insects, fish, or aquatic invertebrates. Many snakes, for example, will eat only live foods (or at least warm and moving). Most spiders locate their prey by the vibrations it produces. As shown in section 5, all the mechanisms proposed for causing the Flood already provide more than enough energy to vaporize it as well.

They thus seem to require at least two periods of deposition (more, where there is more than one unconformity) with long periods of time in between to account for the deformation, erosion, and weathering observed. Many very tall mountains are composed of sedimentary rocks. In addition, he determines that about 10% of the ark was needed for food (compacted to take as little space as possible) and 9.4% for water (assuming no evaporation or wastage). (Imagine if you had to stay in an area the size of a closet for a year.) How were several thousand diverse kinds of animals exercised regularly? How did a crew of eight manage a menagerie larger and more diverse than that found in zoos requiring many times that many employees? The water would be steam by the time it reached the surface of the earth. John Baumgardner created the runaway subduction model, which proposes that the pre-Flood lithosphere (ocean floor), being denser than the underlying mantle, began sinking. 119-144 In: Poldervaart, A., ed., Crust of the Earth, Geological Society of America Special Paper 62, Waverly Press, MD. Tree ring records go back more than 10,000 years, with no evidence of a catastrophe during that time. These layers can occur more or less at random times in the geological history, and have characteristic fossils on either side. At least 25% of the space would have been needed for corridors and bracing. Woodmorappe claims that eight people could care for 16000 animals, but he makes many unrealistic and invalid assumptions. The heat released in the process decreased the viscosity of the mantle, so the process accelerated catastrophically. Patterns of ocean circulation over the continents during Noah's Flood. Patterns and processes of vertebrate evolution, Cambridge University Press. Miracles in, creationism out: "The geophysics of God". [Becker & Kromer, 1993; Becker et al, 1991; Stuiver et al, 1986] Alley, R. Therefore, if the fossils were themselves laid down during a catastrophic flood, there are, it seems, only two choices: (1) the salt layers were themselves laid down at the same time, during the heavy rains that began the flooding, or (2) the salt is a later intrusion. He then calculates that this would increase the total animal mass by 2-3% and decides that this amount is small enough that he can ignore it completely. It is important to take the size of animals into account when considering how much space they would occupy because the greatest number of species occurs in the smallest animals. Vermicomposting could reduce the rate of waste accumulation, but it requires maintenance of its own. The biology of spiders, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, New York. The following objections are covered in more detail by Brown. Walt Brown's model proposes that the Flood waters came from a layer of water about ten miles underground, which was released by a catastrophic rupture of the earth's crust, shot above the atmosphere, and fell as rain. Kent Hovind proposed that the Flood water came from a comet which broke up and fell on the earth. [Johnsen et al, 1992,; Alley et al, 1993] A worldwide flood would be expected to leave a layer of sediments, noticeable changes in salinity and oxygen isotope ratios, fractures from buoyancy and thermal stresses, a hiatus in trapped air bubbles, and probably other evidence. Why did the Flood not leave traces on the sea floors? [Twenhofel, 1961] In a year of the Flood, they could have settled about half a meter. Such layers are sometimes meters in width, interbedded with sediments containing marine fossils. However, even Jewish sources admit that this contradicts the unambiguous word of the Bible. 187] The number and size of clean birds is small enough to disregard entirely, but the Bible at one point (Gen. Woodmorappe performed such an analysis and came to the conclusion that the animals would take up 47% of the ark. How did such a small crew dispose of so much waste? The animals aboard the ark would have been in very poor shape unless they got regular exercise. Again, this has the problem of the heat from the gravitational potential energy. A year long flood should be recognizable in sea bottom cores by (1) an uncharacteristic amount of terrestrial detritus, (2) different grain size distributions in the sediment, (3) a shift in oxygen isotope ratios (rain has a different isotopic composition from seawater), (4) a massive extinction, and (n) other characters. Why is there no evidence of a flood in tree ring dating? This apparently occurs when a body of salt water has its fresh-water intake cut off, and then evaporates.

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